BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Whole grain food sources have been associated with lowered risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies in recent years have strengthened this observation and elucidated potential mechanisms for this association. This study sought to quantitate the available observational evidence on whole grain intake and clinical cardiovascular events.METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven prospective cohort studies with quantitative measures of dietary whole grains and clinical cardiovascular outcomes were identified from MEDLINE searches and a review of the literature. Based on event estimates adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, greater whole grain intake (pooled average 2.5 servings/d vs. 0.2 servings/d) was associated with a 21% lower risk of CVD events [OR 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.85)]. Similar estimates were noted for different CVD outcomes (heart disease, stroke, fatal CVD) and in sex-specific analyses. Conversely, refined grain intake was not associated with incident CVD events [1.07 (0.94-1.22)].CONCLUSIONS: There is a consistent, inverse association between dietary whole grains and incident cardiovascular disease in epidemiological cohort studies. In light of this evidence, policy-makers, scientists, and clinicians should redouble efforts to incorporate clear messages on the beneficial effects of whole grains into public health and clinical practice endeavors.